Lithium golf cart batteries replace VRLA Batteries trend | Feasibility Study

Lithium golf cart batteries VS Lead acid batteries : Which one should I buy?

Lithium golf cart batteries are widely used in low-speed electric vehicles. The broad definition of low-speed electric vehicles can cover electric bicycles, electric motorcycles, electric tricycles, low-speed electric four-wheelers, etc. Four-wheel low-speed electric vehicles can be divided into:

Low-speed electric vehicles

Golf carts and low-speed scooter

Used for short-distance use in golf courses and families.

Sightseeing car / Classic car

It is used in places such as traveling at a speed of 20-30km, and security patrols in residential quarters.

Hunting vehicles / Off-road vehicles

Because electric vehicles have the characteristics of low speed and high torque, their climbing ability is stronger than that of internal combustion engine vehicles.

Special vehicles

Such as aerial work vehicles, urban sweeping vehicles, garbage trucks, police patrol vehicles, etc.

International regulations

EU regulations: On the premise of excluding batteries, the weight of small low-speed electric four-wheeled vehicles cannot exceed 400 kg. Japanese regulations: the maximum speed of low-speed electric four-wheeled vehicles should not exceed 50 kilometers per hour; and the body length should not exceed 3400 mm, and the body width should not exceed 1300 mm.

Among the four-wheeled low-speed electric vehicles, the low-speed scooter has the largest number of possessions. It is still introduced to the market at a rate of nearly 2 million per year in China. More than 95% of the models are equipped with traditional lead-acid batteries; and the batteries need to be replaced every 2-3 years. Lead-acid batteries are in great demand.

Golf Courses around the world

Another type of four-wheeled electric vehicle is a golf cart. According to the 2017 data from the White Paper, there are about 370 golf clubs and 460 18-hole courses in China, with a total of 9.8 million rounds played throughout the year. 21000 times. Golf courses worldwide (34,011), including: US (15,372), UK (2,825), Japan (2,383), Canada (2,363), Australia (1,628).

Golf cart battery usage analysis

According to the data analysis of world-renowned golf cart brands based on Internet searches, the number of golf carts in use worldwide exceeds 3 million, and the exact number of golf carts has not been found in China.

Judging from the number of golf courses and experience, domestic golf carts The number of golf carts used in the stadium shall not be less than 30,000. At present, most of the power sources of golf carts are flooded lead-acid batteries. The single battery is mainly 8V, and there are 6V and 12V specifications. A 36V/48V power supply battery pack is formed by connecting multiple batteries in series. Golf cart lead-acid batteries are generally charged and discharged for 300 times, and the performance of the battery decreases significantly, resulting in a significant decline in the battery life of the golf cart. Therefore, in about two years, it is necessary to purchase a new caddy battery for replacement. According to market research, the average battery life of the lead-acid battery on the caddy is 18 months. The service life of a golf cart is 5-10 years, and 3-6 battery packs need to be replaced during the life cycle.

Lead-acid batteries still occupy the monopoly

Lead-acid batteries still occupy a monopoly in the field of four-wheel low-speed vehicles, mainly because of the following points:

Low price

The current price of lithium batteries is more than twice that of lead-acid batteries. Consumer groups mainly face low- and middle-income customers and are extremely sensitive to prices. The concept of lithium batteries has not yet penetrated into the public;

Stable performance

The technology of lead-acid batteries and supporting raw materials are very mature. The quality of batteries basically depends on the materials and lead content, while the reliability of lithium batteries is relatively poor. If there is a failure, the power will be cut off directly. Not as good as the buffering process of lead-acid batteries;

Policy guidance is mandatory

The state encourages the development of the lithium battery industry, but does not force the switch to lithium batteries. The future direction must be lithium batteries. At this stage, lead-acid has obvious market economic advantages.

lithium battery technology

Lithium golf cart batteries vs Lead Acid Batteries

Energy density

At present, the energy density of lithium golf cart batteries is generally 200~260wh/g, and that of lead acid is generally 50~70wh/g, so the weight energy density of lithium golf cart batteries is 3~5 times that of lead acid, which means that under the same capacity, lead The weight of acid batteries is 3~5 times that of lithium golf cart batteries, so lithium golf cart batteries have an absolute advantage in lightening energy storage devices.

Volume energy density

The volume capacity density of lithium golf cart batteries is usually about 1.5 times that of lead-acid batteries, so under the same capacity, lithium golf cart batteries are about 30% smaller than lead-acid batteries.

Use cycle

At present, the more popular material systems are ternary and iron-lithium. The cycle times of ternary power lithium golf cart batteries are usually more than 1000 times, the cycle times of lithium iron phosphate batteries are more than 2000 times, and the cycle times of lead-acid batteries are usually only 300~350 times. times, so the service life of lithium golf cart batteries is about 3-6 times that of lead-acid batteries.


At present, the price of lithium batteries is more expensive than that of lead-acid batteries, which is about 2-3 times. However, combined with the analysis of service life and the same cost, the service life of lithium batteries is still longer.


Because the safety of lithium golf cart batteries is slightly worse than that of lead-acid batteries, various safety precautions need to be taken in use, such as preventing damage to lithium golf cart batteries caused by external forces or accidents, because this may cause fire or explosion.

National Policy

Lead-acid batteries are very harmful to the environment due to the production process or waste batteries. Therefore, from the perspective of national policy, the expansion and re-investment of lead-acid batteries has been restricted, or the use of lead-acid batteries has been restricted in certain fields.

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In the future, the trend of replacing lead-acid batteries with lithium golf cart batteries will become more and more obvious, and the progress will gradually accelerate.

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