LI-ION VS NI-MH battery, which one is better?

From ordinary electronic devices, laptops and mobile phones to electric vehicles, rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries and NI-MH batteries are one of the common battery types on the market. This article will discuss lithium-ion battery or NiMH battery is more suitable for your device, as well as the differences and comparisons, LI-ION VS NI-MH batteries.

What is NI-MH Battery?

NiMH (NI-MH) batteries are a common rechargeable battery on the market and are one of the most efficient types of nickel batteries. Each NiMH battery can provide 1.2V of power. NiMH batteries have basically replaced nickel-cadmium batteries. One of the reasons why nickel-cadmium batteries were eliminated is that they have a great impact on the environment.

The internal chemical composition of the NiMH battery is mainly divided into positive electrode material and negative electrode material. The positive electrode is made of nickel hydroxide, the negative electrode is made of hydrogen atom metal alloy, and the electrolyte solution is made of potassium hydroxide.

Applications: Small mobile devices, laptops, remote controls, power tools, cameras, hybrid vehicles, backup power supplies, emergency power supplies, etc.

What is lithium-ion battery?

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are one of the most advanced battery technologies at this stage. Each lithium-ion battery can output power with a voltage as high as 3.2V – 3.6V. The main reason is that the energy density of lithium-ion batteries is much higher than that of NiMH batteries. In the chemical composition of lithium ions, the cathode is made of lithium metal oxide, such as lithium iron phosphate, and the anode material is generally copper foil and graphite. The electrolyte is made of lithium salt. Because lithium is the lightest metal, lithium batteries are relatively lighter than other batteries.

Lithium-ion batteries combined with battery management systems form powerful battery modules, which have led to innovative upgrades in various application fields, such as electric vehicles, solar energy storage systems, cordless power tools, mobile phones, tablets, telecommunications equipment, hoverboards, etc.

Pros and cons, LI-ION VS NI-MH batteries.

When comparing lithium-ion and NiMH batteries, you first need to consider the pros and cons of each to know which battery type is better suited for your needs.

Lithium-ion battery advantages

  • The rated capacity of lithium-ion batteries is relatively high, about 1200mAh to 3500mAh
  • The voltage is generally 3.2V-3.7V, the voltage level is relatively high and stable
  • relatively light quality
  • high security
  • supports fast charging, charging time is about 3~5 hours
  • low discharge rate supports long-term storage, 2% – 5%% discharge rate
  • listed in normal environment, the lithium battery has a long life, can be cycled more than 3,000 times, and the life can be extended by 10 years.
  • Wide operating temperature range, -40℃ to +60℃
  • Maintenance-free battery
  • No memory effect, supports deep discharge
  • Compatible with various devices and widely used

Disadvantages of lithium-ion batteries

  • Compared to NiMH batteries, relatively expensive

Advantages of NiMH batteries

  • Widely used and highly compatible with various devices, standard sizes are usually battery sizes such as AA and AAA.
  • High safety, low chemical activity of materials
  • Environmentally friendly
  • Same as lithium battery, supports deep discharge, no memory effect
  • Cheaper than lithium-ion batteries

Disadvantages of NiMH batteries

  • The self-discharge rate of NiMH batteries is higher than that of lithium-ion batteries. The process of NiMH batteries on the market is different. Some batteries may even lose up to 25% – 35% of their initial power within a month.
  • The average voltage is relatively lower than that of lithium-ion batteries, about 1.2V
  • The charging time of NiMH batteries is longer than that of lithium-ion batteries, about 8-12 hours. And it does not support fast charging, which will damage the battery.
  • NiMH batteries are extremely sensitive to temperature changes, and high temperatures will cause voltage drops.
  • The service life is not as good as that of lithium batteries, and NiMH batteries can only last about 3 years.

Which is better, Lithium vs nimh batteries?

Batteries are generally evaluated as “suitable” but not “better”. You can compare the advantages and disadvantages of the two batteries to choose. In terms of performance comparison, Lithium ion batteries are better than Ni MH batteries in most cases. Longer life, lightweight, support fast charging, low self-discharge rates, and perform well at extremely low temperatures. However, cost of NiMH batteries is much lower than that of lithium batteries. NiMH batteries are safer, and lithium-ion batteries also have strict transportation requirements.

Can lithium ion batteries be used instead of nickel metal hydride batteries?

In order to avoid damage to the equipment and battery, this is not recommended. Due to differences in size, voltage, and charge and discharge requirements, it is impossible for the equipment to take into account the performance differences of the two batteries at the same time. Lithium-ion batteries are usually not interchangeable with NiMH batteries.

Which is safer, NiMH batteries or lithium-ion batteries?

NiMH batteries are relatively safe. Due to their lower operating voltage, they are not as susceptible to overcharging or short circuits as lithium batteries. In addition, NiMH batteries also have lower risks of combustion and explosion, so they have higher reliability in terms of safety. Lithium batteries have a wide operating temperature range and are safe when lithium iron phosphate is chosen.

Can NiMH batteries be used with lithium battery chargers?

No, the charging chemical reactions of the two batteries are different, and the charger using other batteries is incompatible.

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